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Fine and ultrafine particle- and gas-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affecting southern Thailand air quality during transboundary haze and potential health effects

Author:
Napawan Mahasakpan, Phatsarakorn Chaisongkaew, Muanfun Inerb, Nobchonnee Nim, Worradorn Phairuang, Surajit Tekasakul, Masami Furuuchi, Mitsuhiko Hata, Thaniya Kaosol, Perapong Tekasakul, Racha Dejchanchaiwong
Source:
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2023 v.124 pp. 253-267
ISSN:
1001-0742
Subject:
aerosols, air quality, carcinogenicity, particulates, peatlands, risk, smoke, China, Thailand
Abstract:
Distribution of PM₀.₁, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ particle- and gas-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the 2019 normal, partial and strong haze periods at a background location in southern Thailand were investigated to understand the behaviors and carcinogenic risks. PM₁ was the predominant component, during partial and strong haze periods, accounting for 45.1% and 52.9% of total suspended particulate matter, respectively, while during normal period the contribution was only 34.0%. PM₀.₁ concentrations, during the strong haze period, were approximately 2 times higher than those during the normal period. Substantially increased levels of particle-PAHs for PM₀.₁, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ were observed during strong haze period, about 3, 5 and 6 times higher than those during normal period. Gas-PAH concentrations were 10 to 36 times higher than those of particle-PAHs for PM₂.₅. Average total Benzo[a]Pyrene Toxic Equivalency Quotients (BaP-TEQ) in PM₀.₁, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ during haze periods were about 2–6 times higher than in the normal period. The total accumulated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risks (ILCRs) in PM₀.₁, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ for all the age-specific groups during the haze effected scenario were approximately 1.5 times higher than those in non-haze scenario, indicating a higher potential carcinogenic risk. These observations suggest PM₀.₁, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ were the significant sources of carcinogenic aerosols and were significantly affected by transboundary haze from peatland fires. This leads to an increase in the volume of smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in southern Thailand, as well as many other countries in lower southeast Asia.
Agid:
7664538