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House dust mite allergens and nitrated products: Identification and risk assessment in indoor dust
- Fan Xu, Jingyi Tian, Fangxing Yang
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2023 v.124 pp. 198-204
- air, altitude, dust, dust mites, females, risk, risk assessment, winter, China
- Air pollutants can potentially lead to nitration of allergic proteins, thus promoting sensitization of these allergens. However, little is currently known about the nitration status of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We identified the occurrence of nitrated products of two major HDM allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 in dust samples collected from college dormitories in eastern China and assessed their associated health risk. The results showed that both non-nitrated and nitrated forms of the two allergens were detected in the dust in the range of non-detected (ND)-10.6, 1.44-15.4, ND-22.4, ND-7.28 μg/g for non-nitrated Der f 1, nitrated Der f 1, non-nitrated Der p 1 and nitrated Der p 1, respectively. The median rates of nitration were determined as 74.0% for Der f 1 and 20.4% for Der p 1 at consideration of one nitration site. Further analysis reveals that the levels of HDM allergens and their nitrated products were found to be generally higher during winter, in dormitories of lower altitude and with female occupants. Furthermore, the calculated risk indexes were at considerably high levels. Our findings suggest that nitrated HDM allergens have already accumulated in the environment at such significant levels and their associated health risk calls for our immediate attention.