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Rich nutrition from the poorest – Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia
- Nout, M.J. Rob
- Food microbiology 2009 v.26 no.7 pp. 685-692
- sourdough, sourdough bread, fermentation, baked goods, whole grain foods, dietary fiber, gluten-free foods, nutritive value, starter cultures, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, proteolysis, acidification, polysaccharides, amylose, phytases, enzyme activity, antimicrobial properties, wheat flour, rye flour, breadmaking quality, food safety, microbiological quality, food acceptability, microbial ecology, ecosystems, corn, Sorghum bicolor, millets, rice, food grains, beverages, beers, multiple strain starters, bakers yeast, digestibility, mineral content, dietary minerals, food fortification, fortified foods, antinutritional factors, phytic acid, sensory evaluation, taste, flavor, acid tolerance, texture, nutrient content, specific energy, Africa, Asia
- Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization.