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Poor Host Status of Australian Finger Lime, Citrus australasica, to Ceratitis capitata, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawai’i

Peter A. Follett, Glenn Asmus, Lindsey J. Hamilton
Insects 2022 v.13 no.2 pp. -
Bactrocera dorsalis, Ceratitis capitata, Citrus, Microcitrus australasica, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, adults, cage size, fruit flies, fruits, pupae, trees
We examined the host status of the Australian finger lime, Citrus australiasica F. Muell. (Rutaceae), to Hawai’i’s tephritid fruit fly pests using laboratory and field studies. In high-density (500 flies, 1:1 males and females) no-choice cage exposures (25 × 25 × 25-cm cage size), both undamaged and punctured finger limes were infested by Ceratitis capitata and Zeugodacuscucurbitae at a low rate compared to papaya controls, whereas Bactrocera dorsalis did not infest undamaged fruit, suggesting finger lime is a nonhost. In low-density (50 females) no-choice cage exposures, C. capitata and Z. cucurbitae readily oviposited in undamaged fruit but individuals rarely developed to the pupal or adult stage. For C. capitata, 274 finger limes exposed to 2000 gravid females, which laid an estimated 14,384 eggs, produced two pupae and no adults. For Z. cucurbitae, 299 fruit exposed to 2000 gravid females, which laid an estimated 4484 eggs, produced four pupae and one adult. Field sampling of undamaged fruit from the tree and off the ground from commercial farms produced five C. capitata pupa and one adult from 1119 fruit, for an infestation rate of 0.05 flies per kilogram of fruit; field collections found no natural Z. cucurbitae or B. dorsalis infestation, but the number of fruit available was too low to demonstrate nonhost status with a high degree of confidence.