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Unique genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of Type III

Möbius, Petra, Fritsch, Isabel, Luyven, Gabriele, Hotzel, Helmut, Köhler, Heike
Veterinary microbiology 2009 v.139 no.3-4 pp. 398-404
sheep, sheep diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, nucleotide sequences, pathotypes, genotype, host specificity, strain differences, microbial genetics, molecular genetics, genetic variation, genetic polymorphism, sequence analysis, phylogeny, genome, genomics, restriction fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction, new methods, validity
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) strains with two new IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) BstEII types intermediate suspected to belong to the MAP Type III group were isolated from migrating sheep in Germany. Such strains have only been sporadically identified in a few studies. For a better understanding of the genomic diversity of MAP with regard to specific host associations, geographic origin, and the discussed classification into Type I, Type II and Type III, these isolates were further characterized. Using IS900-RFLP, the isolates showed unique fingerprint patterns after BstEII-, PstI-, PvuII- and BamHI-digestion which had not been published before. Additionally, using gyrB-PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR/REA) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU)-PCR, the two strains showed differences to known patterns of the Type I as well as the Type II group. Unique genotypes were also obtained with multilocus short sequence repeat (MLSSR) sequencing and MIRU-variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing. As expected, genomic profiles identical to the Type I and different from the Type II group were detected by IS1311-PCR/REA, IS1311 sequencing as well as by Large Sequence Polymorphism analysis (LSPA 8, 17, 20, 4-II, and 18). In addition to distinct growth characteristics, the unique genotypes of the studied sheep strains support their affiliation to the assumed third group within the MAP subspecies and suggest the existence of different genotypes within this Type III group. The results could serve as further evidence that Type I and Type III groups are more closely related to each other than to the bovine Type II group.