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Comparison of different application strategies of divergicin M35 for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked wild salmon

Tahiri, I., Desbiens, M., Kheadr, E., Lacroix,C., Fliss, I.
Food microbiology 2009 v.26 no.8 pp. 783-793
food processing, seafoods, salmon, smoked fish, nonthermal processing, food preservation, food biopreservation, food biopreservatives, bacteriocins, Carnobacterium divergens, bioactive properties, inactivation, food pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes, food contamination, inhibitors, microbial growth, bacterial contamination, food microbiology, culture media, hepatopancreas, Chionoecetes opilio, food safety
Cold-smoked salmon treated with divergicin M35-producing Carnobacterium divergens M35, C. divergens ATCC 35677 (a non-producer of bacteriocin), purified divergicin M35 or supernatants of C. divergens M35 culture in snow crab hepatopancreas (SCH) medium or MRS broth was challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (up to 103 CFU/g). Samples were stored at 4 °C for up to four weeks. L. monocytogenes, total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts were determined along with changes in total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) and biogenic amine production as well as texture, color and odor. A 2.6 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes was obtained for up to 10 days of storage in samples treated with C. divergens M35. Purified divergicin M35 (50 μg/g), SCH supernatant or MRS supernatant brought reductions of 1 log CFU/g at the beginning of storage. However, the anti-listerial activity of the supernatants lasted for 15 days compared to 3 days for purified divergicin M35. Color and texture were affected little in samples containing C. divergens M35 compared to un-inoculated samples. TVBN and biogenic amine production, particularly tyramine, remained below the maximum acceptable level in fish appreciation. These results clearly show the potential of C. divergens M35 culture as well as divergicin M35 bio-ingredient for application to the inactivation of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat seafood.