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Association between evaluation of the reproductive tract by various diagnostic tests and restoration of ovarian cyclicity in high-producing dairy cows

Senosy, W.S., Uchiza, M., Tameoka, N., Izaike, Y., Osawa, T.
Theriogenology 2009 v.72 no.9 pp. 1153-1162
dairy cows, female fertility, anestrus, estrus, postpartum interval, health status, postpartum period, biomarkers, uterus, endometrium, vagina, leukocytes, mucus, cell biology, endoscopy, ultrasonography, hematologic tests, validity, disease detection, follicular development
The uterine condition of clinically normal postpartum Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 45) was evaluated once weekly (Weeks 3 to 7) by endometrial cytology, vaginal mucus collection device (VMCD), vaginoscopy, and ultrasonography to establish a relationship with postpartum resumption of ovulatory cycles. The time of first detection of the corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography and plasma progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/mL was recorded. By 49 d postpartum, 78% of the cows (n=35) had resumed ovarian function (CL group), whereas the remainder (n=10) had no CL (NCL group). There was a positive correlation between VMCD score and presence of fluid in the uterus in cows with a CL (P<0.01) during Week 3 postpartum but no significant correlation in cows without a CL. Percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN%) was higher in the NCL group (mean±SEM, 24.6±9.4%) than in the CL group (11.7±2.2%) during Week 5 postpartum (P<0.05). The PMN% (4.5±6.5%) and VMCD (0.5±0.5) scores during Week 5 in cows ovulating by Day 28 were lower (P<0.01) than the PMN% (15.0±14.3%) and VMCD (1.1±0.9) scores in those ovulating by Day 49. In conclusion, higher PMN% at 5 wk postpartum was associated with delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity in high-producing dairy cows.