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NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting Based Identification of Grapevine Metabolites Associated with Downy Mildew Resistance
- Ali, Kashif, Maltese, Federica, Zyprian, Eva, Rex, Martina, Choi, Young Hae, Verpoorte, Robert
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2009 v.57 no.20 pp. 9599–9606
- Vitis vinifera, grapes, Plasmopara viticola, downy mildew, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, metabolites, metabolome, disease resistance, genetic resistance, plant extracts, leaves, cultivars, organic acids and salts, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids
- Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L.) and grapes have been extensively studied due to their numerous nutritional benefits and health affecting activities. In this study, metabolite fingerprinting of crude leaf extracts, based on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses, has been used for the metabolic characterization of six different grapevine cultivars including downy and powdery mildew resistant ‘Regent’ and susceptible ‘Lemberger’ among others. Several two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques were also employed leading to the identification of a number of different types of compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the processed 1H NMR data revealed clear differences among the cultivars. Metabolites responsible for the discrimination in different grapevine cultivars belong to major classes, that is, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. A differentiation of the cultivars based on their resistance to downy mildew infection was also achieved, and metabolites associated with this trait, namely, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and a trans-feruloyl derivative, were identified. On the basis of these results, the distribution of different plant metabolites among the different grapevine cultivars is presented.