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Aqueous chlorine dioxide generated with organic acids have higher antimicrobial efficacy than those generated with inorganic acids
- Lianger Dong, Marisa Wall, Yong Li
- International journal of food microbiology 2022 v.369 pp. 109632
- Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, antimicrobial properties, chlorine dioxide, chlorites, citric acid, food microbiology, hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, models, pH, peptones, romaine lettuce, sodium sulfate
- Chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) is commonly generated by mixing sodium chlorite and acid. This study aimed to evaluate how acid affects the release kinetics and antimicrobial property of ClO₂. Solutions made with weak acids released ClO₂ more slowly and had higher stability than those made with hydrochloric acid. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were treated with 1, 2.5, and 5 ppm ClO₂ for 3 or 5 min. Lettuce inoculated with the pathogenic bacteria were treated with 2.5 and 5 ppm ClO₂ for 5 min. The effects of peptone load at 0.01% and 0.02% on the antimicrobial efficacy of ClO₂ were investigated in S. Typhimurium cell suspensions. The contribution of acids alone at the pH of the ClO₂ solutions to bacterial reduction was also evaluated. The 2.5 ppm ClO₂ solutions made with citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid showed higher reductions in all three bacteria than ClO₂ made with hydrochloric acid and sodium bisulfate. The 5 ppm ClO₂ solutions produced with organic acids reduced populations of all bacterial strains from 7 log CFU/mL to undetectable level in 3 min, except S. Typhimurium treated by ClO₂ produced with lactic acid. On inoculated Romaine lettuce model, 5 ppm ClO₂ produced with lactic acid and malic acid resulted in the highest reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes of approximately 1.4, 1.7, and 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of ClO₂ made with HCl and NaHSO₄ were affected by 0.01% and 0.02% peptone load, respectively. Food-grade organic acids produced aqueous ClO₂ solutions with stronger antimicrobial properties than inorganic acids. The acids alone at the pH of ClO₂ did not show significant bacterial reductions.