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The effect of grape seed extract or Cistus ladanifer L. on muscle volatile compounds of lambs fed dehydrated lucerne supplemented with oil
- Vasta, Valentina, Jerónimo, Eliana, Brogna, Daniela M.R., Dentinho, Maria T.P., Biondi, Luisa, Santos-Silva, José, Priolo, Alessandro, Bessa, Rui J.B.
- Food chemistry 2010 v.119 no.4 pp. 1339-1345
- lambs, food animals, lamb feeding, alfalfa, feed supplements, dietary fat, wheat bran, grape seed extract, feed additives, Cistus ladanifer, shrubs, resins, specialty crops, ornamental plants, nursery crops, skeletal muscle, lamb meat, volatile compounds, lipid metabolism, biomarkers, feed rations, Portugal
- Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; control diet with 6% of oil blend (CO); control with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); control with 2.5% of grape seed extract and 6% of oil blend (GSO); control with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (an aromatic bush widespread in Portugal; CL); control with 25% of C. ladanifer and 6% of oil blend (CLO). The muscle longissimus dorsi was then subjected to the analysis of volatile compounds (SPME-GC/MS). The CLO diet increased the concentration of heptanal, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-ethyl-phenol in muscle compared to the CL diet. When lambs received the CL diet, their meat contained lower amounts of 4-heptenal compared to the other treatments. The meat of the GS and GSO lambs contained similar amounts of volatile compounds deriving from lipid oxidation (such as heptanal, 2-nonenal, 4-heptenal and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone). These results indicate that in the presence of grape seed extract, oil supplementation did not enhance the production of lipid-derived volatile compounds. Verbenone and 2,2,6-trimethyl-cyclohexanone were detected only in the meat of the Cistus-fed lambs, suggesting that these compounds could be markers of feeding Cistus-containing diets. Meat volatile compounds profile allowed to discriminate between the lambs receiving C. ladanifer and those not receiving this bush in the diet.