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Characterization of Commercial Inactive Dry Yeast Preparations for Enological Use Based on Their Ability To Release Soluble Compounds and Their Behavior toward Aroma Compounds in Model Wines

Pozo-Bayon, Maria, Andujar-Ortiz, Inmaculada, Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan Maria, Martin-Alvarez, Pedro J., Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2009 v.57 no.22 pp. 10784–10792
inactivation, wine yeasts, winemaking, wine quality, odor compounds, model food systems, food analysis, food composition, wine industry
The characterization of commercial enological inactive dry yeast (IDY) with different applications in wine production has been carried out. This study was based on the yeast's ability to release soluble compounds (high molecular weight nitrogen, free amino nitrogen, peptidic nitrogen, free amino acids, and polysaccharides) into model wines and on its behavior toward the volatility of seven wine aroma compounds. Important differences in soluble compounds released into the model wines supplemented with commercial IDY were found, with the free amino acids being among the most released. The volatility of most of the aroma compounds was affected by the addition of IDY preparations at a concentration usually employed during winemaking. The extent of this effect was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma compound and on the length of time the IDY preparations remained in contact with the model wines. Whereas shorter contact times (2, 4, and 6 days) mainly promoted a “salting-out” effect, longer exposure (9 and 13 days) provoked a retention effect, with the consequent reduction of aroma compounds in the headspace. The use of different commercial preparations also promoted different effects toward the aroma compounds that may be at least in part due to differences in their ability to release soluble compounds of yeast origin into the wines.