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A composite polyphenol-rich extract improved growth performance, ruminal fermentation and immunity, while decreasing methanogenesis and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in growing buffaloes
- Snehdeep Singh, Jaspal Singh Hundal, Amlan Kumar Patra, Ram S. Sethi, Amit Sharma
- Environmental science and pollution research 2022 v.29 no.17 pp. 24757-24773
- Acacia catechu, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Punica granatum, Syzygium cumini, Vachellia nilotica, acetates, ammonia, bark, blackberries, body weight changes, buffaloes, cell-mediated immunity, crude protein, diet, digestible protein, excretion, fatty acid composition, feed additives, feed intake, fermentation, flavonoids, growth performance, inoculum, methane production, methanogens, nitrogen, nutrient utilization, phosphorus, pollution, pomegranates, propionic acid, research, rumen fermentation, rumen fluids, saponins, short chain fatty acids
- The effects of a composite polyphenolic-rich extract (CPRE) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient utilisation, growth performance, excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus and methane emission were studied in growing buffaloes. Four herbal dry extracts prepared from Acacia arabica (babul; bark), Acacia catechu (cutch; bark), Punica granatum (pomegranate; peel) and Eugenia jambolana (Indian blackberry; seeds) were mixed in an equal proportion (1:1:1:1) to prepare the CPRE that contained mainly phenolic compounds (146 g/kg), flavonoids (41.7 g/kg) and saponins (40.5 g/kg). First, in vitro tests were performed for ruminal fermentation and feed degradability using ruminal fluid as inocula and CPRE at 0 to 40 g/kg substrate to decide an optimal dose of CPRE for an in vivo study on buffaloes. In the animal study, 20 buffaloes were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 10)—a control diet and a CPRE diet (control diet added with extra 20 g/kg of CPRE). The in vitro tests suggested that addition of CPRE at 20 g/kg substrate increased degradability of substrate, short-chain fatty acid concentration and propionate proportion, and reduced methane production, acetate proportion, acetate:propionate ratio and ammonia concentration in fermentation media, which were also noted in the rumen of buffaloes. Feeding CRPE to buffaloes did not affect feed intake, but increased daily body weight gain, dry matter and crude protein digestibility and nitrogen and phosphorus retention in the body. Total bacteria, methanogens and protozoal numbers were similar between two groups, but Fibrobacter succinogenes increased in the rumen of buffaloes fed CPRE. Concentrations of total, essential, non-essential and glucogenic amino acids were greater in the plasma of CPRE-fed buffaloes. Cell-mediated immune response improved in the CPRE-fed buffaloes compared with the control group. Estimated methane production and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus per unit of body weight gain decreased in the CPRE group. The comprehensive results of this study clearly suggested that the composite polyphenol-rich feed additive at 20 g/kg diet improved growth performance, ruminal fermentation, immunity and plasma amino acids profile, whereas it reduced indicators of environmental impacts of buffalo production.