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Differential Herbicide Response among Three Phenotypes of Cabomba caroliniana
- Bultemeier, Brett W., Netherland, Mike D., Ferrell, Jason A., Haller, William T.
- Invasive plant science and management 2009 v.2 no.4 pp. 352-359
- Cabomba, submerged aquatic plants, aquatic weeds, herbicides, herbicide-resistant weeds, invasive species, phenotype, color, biotypes, photosynthesis, application rate
- Cabomba is a submersed aquatic plant native to the southeastern United States that is commonly sold worldwide through the aquarium trade. While infrequently managed in its native range, cabomba has recently been reported as invasive and tolerant to management efforts in the northern areas of the United States and in other countries. Invasive populations of cabomba are characterized by a phenotype that is bright green. In contrast, cabomba native to the southeastern United States is characterized by a red phenotype, while plants sold through the aquarium trade have intermediate characteristics of both the green and red phenotypes. The response of the three cabomba phenotypes to selected herbicides was evaluated by measuring photosynthetic response over the course of a static 144-hr exposure. Plants were exposed to the maximum recommended use-rates of 2,4-D, carfentrazone, copper, diquat, endothall (amine and dipotasium salt formulation), flumioxazin, quinclorac, triclopyr, and a combination of diquat and copper. A submersed plant species known to be sensitive to each of these herbicides was also included to compare photosynthetic response of the cabomba to a susceptible plant. The photosynthetic response of the red and green phenotypes differed following exposure to carfentrazone, diquat, 2,4-D, triclopyr, and flumioxazin. Diquat, diquat plus copper, endothall (amine salt), and flumioxazin were the only products that resulted in a greater than 50% reduction of photosynthesis in all three phenotypes of cabomba. A second experiment was conducted where all three phenotypes of cabomba were exposed to these four herbicides for 24 hr, and photosynthesis was evaluated. Following the 24-hr exposure, results further documented distinct response differences between the green and red phenotypes, with the green phenotype demonstrating a reduced sensitivity to the herbicides evaluated. Results demonstrate clear phenotypic differences in response to herbicide treatments and lack of susceptibility of cabomba to most herbicides.