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Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals

Liu, Dagang, Zhong, Tuhua, Chang, Peter R., Li, Kaifu, Wu, Qinglin
Bioresource technology 2010 v.101 no.7 pp. 2529-2536
Pseudosasa, biomass, renewable resources, lignocellulose, cellulose, crystals, acid hydrolysis, sulfuric acid, biobased products, mechanical properties, tensile strength, crystal structure
Using a method of combined HNO₃-KClO₃ treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state ¹³C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized “flower” geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level.