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Screening for Feeding Deterrent and Insect Growth Regulatory Activity of Triterpenic Saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi

Saha, Supradip, Walia, Suresh, Kumar, Jitendra, Dhingra, Swaran, Parmar, Balraj S.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2010 v.58 no.1 pp. 434–440
screening, antifeedants, insect growth regulators, triterpenoid saponins, Diploknema butyracea, Sapindus mukorossi, Spodoptera litura, insect control, plant protection
Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active in controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L−1 alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prep-HPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[β-d-glucopyarnosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl]−16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[β-d-xyl(OAc)·β-d-arabinopyranosyl·β-d-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[β-d-glc·β-d-glc·β-d-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (GI50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile−lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton.