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Recent advances in developing innovative sorbents for phosphorus removal—perspective and opportunities

Nautam Parasana, Manan Shah, Ashish Unnarkat
Environmental science and pollution research 2022 v.29 no.26 pp. 38985-39016
adsorbents, adsorption, adverse effects, aquatic organisms, crystallization, eutrophication, farms, habitats, ion exchange, phosphates, phosphorus, pollution, rain, research, soil conditioners
Phosphorus is an essential mineral for the growth of plants which is supplied in the form of fertilizers. Phosphorus remains an inseparable part of developing agrarian economics. Phosphorus enters waterways through three different sources: domestic, agricultural, and industrial sources. Rainfall is the main cause for washing away a large amount of phosphates from farm soils into nearby waterways. The surplus of phosphorus in the water sources cause eutrophication and degradation of the habitat with an adverse effect on aquatic life and plants. Phosphate elimination is necessary to control eutrophication in water sources. Among the different methods reported for the removal and recovery of phosphorus: ion exchange, precipitation, crystallization, and others, adsorption standout as a sustainable solution. The current review offers a comparative assessment of the literature on novel materials and techniques for the removal of phosphorus. Herein, different adsorbents, their behaviors, mechanisms, and capacity of materials are discussed in detail. The adsorbents are categorized under different heads: iron-based, silica-alumina-based, calcium-based, biochar-based wherein the metal and metal oxides are employed in phosphorus removal. The ideal attribute of adsorbent will be the utilization of spent adsorbents as a phosphate plant food and a soil conditioner in agriculture. The review provides the perspective on the current research with potential challenges and directives for possible research in the field.