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Detection of primary clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori and association between cagA ⁺ status and clinical outcome
- Yula, Erkan, Nagiyev, Toğrul, Kaya, Özlem Aycan, İnci, Melek, Çelik, M. Murat, Köksal, Fatih
- Folia microbiologica 2013 v.58 no.2 pp. 141-146
- Helicobacter pylori, agar, antibiotic resistance, biopsy, clarithromycin, duodenal ulcers, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, gastrointestinal system, gender differences, genes, mutants, patients, polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, rural areas, rural population
- Helicobacter pylori was examined in 110 patients (82 (74.5) with gastritis, 18 (16.4) with duodenitis, six (5.5) with duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux, and four (3.6 %) with normal) with gastrointestinal problems living in rural area, no history of macrolide use, and detected by culture (71.8) or direct detection from gastric biopsies by PCR (82.7 %). Also, cagA gene was identified using PCR and was found positive in 68/91 (74.7 %) strains. The prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori was investigated by two methods including PCR–RFLP (7.7 (A2142G 1.1 and A2143G 6.6 %)) and twofold agar dilution (8.9 %) to detect phenotypic and genotypic status simultaneously. Among all the H. pylori positive patients, eight (8.8 %) isolates were found to be resistant to clarithromycin by at least one of the AD and/or PCR–RFLP methods. H. pylori positive rates were significantly correlated with patients' sex, age, and endoscopic findings (p = 0.040, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively). There were no differences in gender or endoscopic findings related to cagA ⁺ and cagA ⁻ patients. The gene of cagA was not significantly helpful in predicting the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection alone. In conclusion, we revealed that there was a low prevalence of primer clarithromycin resistance in patients living in rural area with no history of macrolide use. The prevalence of mutant strains among the macrolide-resistant H. pylori varies even geographically between close provinces.