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Prevention of type 2 diabetes induced by high fat diet in the C57BL/6J mouse by two medicinal plants used in traditional treatment of diabetes in the east of Algeria

Hamza, Nawel, Berke, Bénédicte, Cheze, Catherine, Agli, Abdel-Nacer, Robinson, Philip, Gin, Henri, Moore, Nicholas
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2010 v.128 no.2 pp. 513-518
medicinal plants, medicinal properties, Artemisia herba-alba, Centaurium erythraea, traditional medicine, glycemic effect, mice, animal models, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, high fat diet, plant extracts, oral administration, dosage, dose response, blood glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, blood lipids, insulin resistance, energy intake, body weight, disease prevention, Algeria
Aim of the study: The preventive effect of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (AHA), and Centaurium erythraea Rafn (CE), two medicinal plants used in traditional treatment of diabetes in the north-eastern Algeria, were evaluated in animal models of type 2 diabetic induced with a standardised high fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods: Plant extracts were administered orally by gavage at a dose of 2g/kg bodyweight daily for 20 weeks to male C57BL/6J mice fed HFD. Animals were weighed and plasma glucose measured weekly and insulin at the end of study using standard ELISA methods. Results: After 6 weeks, blood glucose levels increased in HFD control mice. At end of study (20 weeks) in groups treated with AHA or CE extracts vs. HFD control group there was a significant reduction in mean (±SD) fasting blood glucose (respectively 108.0±42.0 and 120.4±45.1 vs. 183.1±19.1mg/dl, p <0.05), triglyceride concentrations (26.9±6.7 and 27.9±17.8 vs. 48.9±12.1mg/dl, p <0.05) and serum insulin levels (1.1±1.0 and 0.6±0.7 vs. 3.1±1.8ng/ml, p <0.05). Plant extracts also markedly reduced insulin resistance as measured by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) compared to HFD controls (AHA: 4.4±5.3, CE: 3.0±3.3 vs. HFD control 38.3±26.6, p <0.05). The plant extracts had no effect on calorie intake or body weight. Conclusion: AHA had been shown to have a hypoglycaemic effect in diabetes but this is the first demonstration of a preventive effect of AHA and CE on HFD-induced diabetes.