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Preventive vaccination contributes to control classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.)

Rossi, S., Pol, F., Forot, B., Masse-provin, N., Rigaux, S., Bronner, A., Le Potier, M.-F.
Veterinary microbiology 2010 v.142 no.1-2 pp. 99-107
wild boars, Sus scrofa, vaccination, Classical swine fever virus, vertebrate viruses, hog cholera, disease control, live vaccines, seroprevalence, baiting, microbial colonization, disease severity, infection, disease outbreaks, Europe
Over the last 20 years, oral vaccination implementing a live attenuated vaccine has been experimented in Europe in order to control classical swine fever (CSF) in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa sp.). This has generally led to an enhanced seroprevalence and a decreased viroprevalence at the scale of the whole vaccinated populations, but no quantitative analysis has demonstrated the protective effect of preventive vaccination or intensive baiting. In the present paper we conducted a retrospective analysis at the scale of the municipality, taking into account the local dynamics and possible covariates of infection to test the effect of preventive vaccination and of the baiting effort. To be efficient, vaccination was expected to increase seroprevalence above the level considered as suitable for preventing disease invasion (40-60%) independently of infection, to protect free areas from disease invasion or contribute to control subsequent disease intensity and duration. We also hypothesized that a better baiting effort would be correlated with an improvement of immunisation and disease control. In uninfected municipalities, seroprevalence increased up to 40% after 1 year, i.e., three vaccination campaigns. We observed a significant protective effect of preventive vaccination, especially within municipalities that had been vaccinated at least 1 year before disease emergence and where virus detection did not last more than one quarter. On the other hand, we did not detect a significant effect of the baiting effort on local seroprevalence or disease dynamics, suggesting that the baiting system could be improved. We discuss these results regarding the improvement of management measures and further research perspective.