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Yeast biodiversity from oleic ecosystems: Study of their biotechnological properties

Romo-Sánchez, Sheila, Alves-Baffi, Milla, Arévalo-Villena, María, Úbeda-Iranzo, Juan, Briones-Pérez, Ana
Food microbiology 2010 v.27 no.4 pp. 487-492
yeasts, starter cultures, biodiversity, olives, raw vegetables, isolation, Olea europaea, pastes, pomace, food processing wastes, solid wastes, cultivars, enzyme activity, molecular systematics, internal transcribed spacers, restriction fragment length polymorphism, waste utilization, food biotechnology, oleic acid, microbial ecology, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, genomics
The aim of this study was to know the yeast biodiversity from fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crush olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) from Arbequina and Cornicabra varieties. Yeasts were isolated from fruits randomly harvested at various olive groves in the region of Castilla La Mancha (Spain). Olive paste and pomace, a byproduct of the processing of this raw material, were also collected in sterile flasks from different oil mills. Molecular identification methodology used included comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of their 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 followed by restriction pattern analysis (RFLP). For some species, sequence analysis of the 5.8S rDNA gene was necessary. The results were compared to sequences held in public databases (BLAST). These techniques allowed to identify fourteen different species of yeasts, belonging to seven different genera (Zygosaccharomyces, Pichia, Lachancea, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Torulaspora) from the 108 yeast isolates. Species diversity was thus considerable: Pichia caribbica, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati (Lachancea fermentati) and Pichia holstii (Nakazawaea holstii) were the most commonly isolated species, followed by Pichia mississippiensis, Lachancea sp., Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Saccharomyces rosinii. The biotechnological properties of these isolates, was also studied. For this purpose, the activity of various enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-glucanase, carboxymethylcellulase, polygalacturonase, peroxidase and lipase) was evaluated. It was important that none of species showed lipase activity, a few had cellulase and polygalacturonase activities and the majority of them presented β-glucanase, β-glucosidase and peroxidase activities.