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Antibacterial metabolites synthesized by psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from cold-freshwater environments

Barros, Javier, Becerra, José, González, Carlos, Martínez, Miguel
Folia microbiologica 2013 v.58 no.2 pp. 127-133
Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas, Yersinia aldovae, antibacterial properties, chemical structure, filtrates, freshwater, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genes, metabolites, peptidase K, proteolysis, psychrotrophic bacteria, ribosomal RNA, river water, rivers, sesquiterpenoids, streams, temperature, Chile
The ability of three psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Chilean Patagonian cold freshwater rivers to produce bioactive metabolites was evaluated. The strains were isolated from cold waters rivers and identified by their biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The metabolites fractions showing antibacterial activity were obtained by solvent extraction and partially characterized by gas–mass chromatography (GC-MS). Antibacterial activity of the fractions was evaluated by an agar-well diffusion test upon 14 bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative. Thermal and proteolytic resistances of the antibacterial metabolites fractions were also evaluated. Molecular analysis allows the identification of the three Patagonian strains as Pseudomonas sp. RG-6 (Pseudomonas brenneri 99.6 % identity), Pseudomonas sp. RG-8 (Pseudomonas trivialis 99.6 % identity) and Yersinia sp. RP-3 (Yersinia aldovae 99.5 % identity). These extracts were able to inhibit both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Listeria monocytogenes. The antibacterial activity of the filtrated supernatants was lost at temperatures ≥60 °C, and was not affected by proteinase K treatment. The chemical structure of the active molecule remains to be elucidated, although the GC-MS analysis of the filtrates suggests that compounds like sesquiterpenes derivatives from β-maaliene or δ-selinene could be responsible of this antibacterial activity. Pristine cold freshwater streams showed to be interesting sources of metabolites-producing microorganisms with antibacterial activity.