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Wilt disease management and enhancement of growth and yield of Cajanus cajan (L) var. Manak by bacterial combinations amended with chemical fertilizer

Kumar, Harish, Bajpai, Vivek K., Dubey, R.C., Maheshwari, D.K., Kang, Sun Chul
Crop protection 2010 v.29 no.6 pp. 591-598
Cajanus cajan, pigeon peas, field crops, Fusarium udum, plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium wilt, Sinorhizobium fredii, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, root nodules, symbiosis, symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, suppressive soils, indole acetic acid, siderophores, beta-glucanase, chitinase, enzyme activity, fungal antagonists, cell wall components, mechanism of action, seed germination, fertilizers
Root nodulating Sinorhizobium fredii KCC5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens LPK2 were isolated from nodules of Cajanus cajan and disease suppressive soil of tomato rhizosphere, respectively. Both strains produced IAA, siderophore, solubilized insoluble phosphate, showed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities, and strongly inhibited the growth of Fusarium udum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. LPK2 produced volatile cyanogen (HCN). Combinations of S. fredii KCC5 and P. fluorescens LPK2 with half dose of chemical fertilizers showed a significant increase in seed germination (94%) while seed germination with co-inoculated strains (KCC5 + LPK2), KCC5 and LPK2 alone was 90, 84 and 82% respectively as compared to control 77%. After 120 days of sowing, per plant number of pods, nodules, shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight were greater for the combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers compared to the control. Combinations of S. fredii KCC5 and P. fluorescens LPK2 with half dose of chemical fertilizers resulted in an 82% increase in grain yield per hectare compared to the control. Both strains KCC5 and LPK2 led to proto-cooperation as evidenced by synergism, aggressive colonization of the roots, and enhanced growth, suggesting potential biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium wilt in C. cajan.