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Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper viruses from South Africa: Lineage Africa

Woma, Timothy Y., van Vuuren, Moritz, Bosman, Ana-Mari, Quan, Melvyn, Oosthuizen, Marinda
Veterinary microbiology 2010 v.143 no.2-4 pp. 126-132
dogs, canine distemper, Canine distemper virus, strains, pathotypes, microbial genetics, molecular genetics, genes, viral proteins, hemagglutinins, sequence analysis, genetic variation, phylogeny, geographical variation, geographical distribution, virulence, immunization, nucleotide sequences, vaccines, protective effect, epidemiological studies, disease surveillance, molecular epidemiology, South Africa
There are no reports of CDV isolations in southern Africa, and although CDV is said to have geographically distinct lineages, molecular information of African strains has not yet been documented. Viruses isolated in cell cultures were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the complete H gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed with other strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic comparisons of the complete H gene of CDV isolates from different parts of the world (available in GenBank) with wild-type South African isolates revealed nine clades. All South African isolates form a separate African clade of their own and thus are clearly separated from the American, European, Asian, Arctic and vaccine virus clades. It is likely that only the ‘African lineage' of CDV may be circulating in South Africa currently, and the viruses isolated from dogs vaccinated against CDV are not the result of reversion to virulence of vaccine strains, but infection with wild-type strains.