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Characterisation of the first wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase resembling mammalian counterparts

Joye, Iris J., Beliën, Tim, Brijs, Kristof, Proost, Paul, Soetaert, Wim, Delcour, Jan A.
Journal of cereal science 2010 v.51 no.3 pp. 326-336
Triticum aestivum, wheat, nucleotidases, phosphoric diester hydrolases, enzyme activity, amino acid sequences, enzyme kinetics, nucleotides
A formerly unknown nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (TaNPP) was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris (TaNPPr) following assembly of the sequence out of wheat ESTs using sequences of known NPPs. Simultaneously, a phosphodiesterase was purified to homogeneity from wheat germs, characterised and identified as TaNPP. TaNPP contains the highly conserved catalytic substrate and metal binding residues and displays properties [high pH optimum, glycosylation, high thermostability and inhibition by EDTA and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)] similar to those of mammalian enzymes characterised earlier. The sequence of TaNPP includes that of a putative transmembrane domain, a characteristic of most NPPs. Both recombinant and native TaNPP partially occur as oligomeric proteins on SDS PAGE. Upon addition of DTT, both migrate as monomeric proteins. Part of the native wheat protein even occurs in its truncated form, thus lacking the transmembrane region. Out of a range of tested natural substrates, TaNPP had the highest affinity towards adenine containing nucleotides. While Michaelis-Menten kinetics were valid in the low substrate concentration range, at higher concentrations, they were no longer applicable. TaNPP shows no similarity to the recently characterised rice and barley enzymes and, is hence, one of the first characterised plant NPPs resembling mammalian NPPs.