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Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral activity, and gas chromatographic analysis of Varanus griseus oil extracts

Shakeel Ahmad, Tahira Ruby, Mirza Imran Shahzad, Gildardo Rivera, Diana Victoria Navarrete Carriola, Aleem Ahmed Khan
Archives of microbiology 2022 v.204 no.8 pp. 531
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, Escherichia coli, Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus, Influenza A virus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Varanus griseus, anti-infective agents, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, antiviral properties, butanol, drug resistance, ethyl acetate, ethyl ether, free radicals, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hemagglutination, hexane, methanol, oils, poultry
There is an urgent need to develop natural antimicrobials for the control of rapidly mutating drug-resistant bacteria and poultry viruses. Five extracts were prepared using diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, 1-butanol and n-hexane from abdominal fats of Varanus griseus locally known as Indian desert monitor. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral activities from oil extracts were done through disc diffusion method, stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and in ovo antiviral assay, respectively. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses were used to determine principal active compounds and chemical profile of each oil extract. n-Hexane extract showed clear zones of inhibition (ZOI) against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12 ± 0.5 mm, 9 ± 0.5 mm, and 9 ± 0.5 mm) while diethyl ether extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity (11 ± 0.5 mm) against Proteus vulgaris only. In case of drug-resistant strains, methanol extract was active (6 ± 0.5 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas n-hexane extract has shown ZOI 11 ± 0.5 mm against P. aeruginosa. Range of percentage scavenging activity of V. griseus oil extracts from DPPH free radical assay was 34.9–70.7%. For antiviral potential, growth of new castle disease virus (NDV) was effectively inhibited by all five extracts (HA titer = 0–4). The highest antiviral activity against avian influenza virus (H9N2) was observed from methanol, diethyl ether and 1-Butanol oil extracts with HA titers of 2, 2 and 0, respectively. Methanol, diethyl ether, 1-butanol and n-hexane oil extracts produced best hemagglutination assay (HA) titer values (0, 0, 4 and 0) against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Ethyl acetate and 1-Butanol extract exhibited good antiviral potential against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) with indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) titers of 8 and 4, respectively. Main classes of identified compounds through gas chromatography were aldehydes, fatty acids, phenols and esters. GC–MS identified 11 bioactive compounds in V. griseus oil extracts. It is summarized that V. griseus oil has strong antioxidant activity and good antimicrobial potential because of its bioactive compounds.