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Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

da Cruz, Daniela Guedes, da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira, Arruda, Sabrina Santos, Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini, Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha, Santos, Edizio, Molento, Marcelo Beltrão, de Paula Santos, Clóvis
Veterinary parasitology 2010 v.170 no.3-4 pp. 340-343
sheep, sheep diseases, helminths, helminthiasis, drug resistance, anthelmintics, livestock production, disease control, questionnaires, farms, drug evaluation, Brazil
Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n =10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics.