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Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and insecticide mixtures to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn crops

Negrisoli, Aldomario S., Garcia, Mauro S., Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla R.C., Bernardi, Daniel, da Silva, Alexandre
Crop protection 2010 v.29 no.7 pp. 677-683
chlorpyrifos, Heterorhabditis indica, field experimentation, application rate, entomopathogenic nematodes, biological control agents, plant pests, Steinernema carpocapsae, synergism, Zea mays, insect pests, corn, bioassays, Spodoptera frugiperda, mortality, Steinernema glaseri, biological control, grain crops, instars, lufenuron, Brazil
The main insect pest in Brazilian corn is fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be used to control this pest, and can be applied together with various insecticides. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of mixtures of EPNs and insecticides to control S. frugiperda in corn crops. In laboratory bioassays three species of EPNs were tested (Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri) together with 18 registered insecticides to control S. frugiperda in corn. Efficacy of association between insecticides and EPNs on S. frugiperda larvae was evaluated against the insect's third instar, 2 and 4 days after applications in laboratory. Experiments in the field were performed in two consecutive years, with located application of H. indica and S. carpocapsae (250 IJs/cm²) mixed with chlorpyrifos (0.3 L/ha) and lufenuron (0.15 L/ha) on the corn husk. In laboratory, after two days exposure the interaction between chlorpyrifos and H. indica was synergistic, while interaction with cypermethrin, spinosad, methoxyfenozide and deltamethrin + triazofos was additive, as was interaction between lufenuron, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin with S. carpocapsae. In contrast, the interaction between chlorpyrifos (Vexter(TM) and Lorsban(TM)) and lufenuron with S. glaseri was synergistic. In the field, the best treatment was the mixture of H. indica with lufenuron (0.15 L/ha), with 62.5% and 57.5% larval mortality in the two evaluation years in the field, respectively.