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Formation of trans fatty acids in edible oils during the frying and heating process

Tsuzuki, Wakako, Matsuoka, Akiko, Ushida, Kaori
Food chemistry 2010 v.123 no.4 pp. 976-982
trans fatty acids, frying, heat treatment, model food systems, potatoes, food composition, lipid content, fatty acid composition, vegetable oil, food service, home food preparation, cooking fats and oils
To assess an impact of heated edible oils on intake of trans fat, the formations of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in cooking conditions was estimated by a frying and heating model system. For the frying model, sliced raw potatoes (10% of the frying oil (w/w)) were fried in commercially available canola oil at 160, 180 and 200°C, and the 10 frying cycles were performed. The TFAs contained both in fried potatoes and in frying oils were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Lipids content of raw potatoes was about 0.1% (w/w) and TFAs in the raw potatoes were negligible. On the other hand, fried potatoes contained lipids at the level of 8.8%-9.2% and their fatty acid composition was mostly in correspondence with that of the frying oil. The TFAs amount of potatoes fried by the tenth frying operation was at the level of 0.99-1.05g/100g lipids. When 100g potatoes fried in this process were consumed, the TFAs intake was estimated at less than 0.1g. After 10 frying operations, TFAs content, acid values and peroxide values of the frying oils were measured and compared with those of corresponding heated canola oils without food. The amounts of trans 18:1 FAs contained both in the frying oil and in heated oil were less than the quantitative limit (0.047g/100g oil). The increases of trans 18:2 FAs and trans 18:3 FAs of the used frying oil were 0.02g/100 and 0.05g/100g, respectively, compared with those of the fresh oil. trans 18:2 FAs accumulation in the heated oil was slightly less than that in the frying oil. To elucidate TFAs accumulation in various edible oils during cooking, six kinds of commercially available edible vegetable oils were heated to 180°C in glass test tubes. Small changes in TFAs amounts were observed after four hours heating. These results suggested that an ordinary frying process using unhydrogenated edible oils has little impact on TFAs intake from edible oils.