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Motility and cryopreservation of spermatozoa of European common frog, Rana temporaria
- Mansour, Nabil, Lahnsteiner, Franz, Patzner, Robert A.
- Theriogenology 2010 v.74 no.5 pp. 724-732
- Rana temporaria, frogs, spermatozoa, sperm motility, cryopreservation, testes, osmolality, sucrose, saline water, sodium chloride, temperature, toxicity, cryoprotectants, adverse effects, semen extenders, glycerol, viability, egg yolk, thawing
- Motility and cryopreservation of testicular sperm of European common frog, Rana temporaria were investigated. Collected testicular spermatozoa were immotile in solutions of high osmolalities: 300 mmol/l sucrose and motility inhibiting saline solution-MIS. Full sperm motility could be activated in distilled water or in a solution of 50 mmol/l NaCl, = 90 mosmol/kg, with 75-90% motility and 14-16 μm s⁻¹ swimming velocity. Spermatozoa activated in distilled water and kept at room temperature ceased the motility within a period of 1 h. But when they were kept at 4 °C, no significant decrease in sperm motility and velocity occurred over a period of 1 h. Incubation of testicular sperm diluted 1:2 with MIS containing 10% DMSO, 5% glycerol, 10% methanol, or 10% propandiol for a period of 40 min at 4 °C showed that propandiol was the most toxic cryoprotectant for spermatozoa of European common frog R. temporaria. However, methanol was not toxic to spermatozoa during the 40 min incubation period, it failed to protect spermatozoa during the freezing and thawing process. DMSO and glycerol were useful penetrating cryoprotectants that interacted with sperm diluents in cryodiluent efficacy. In combination with the sucrose diluent, DMSO was a better cryoprotectant than glycerol, while in combination with MIS, DMSO and glycerol were similarly useful. Sperm was frozen at two freezing levels above the surface of liquid nitrogen. Sperm frozen 5 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen resulted in immotile and non-viable spermatozoa. However, sperm frozen at 10 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen showed 40-45% viability and 30-35% motility, compared to the untreated freshly collected testicular sperm. Addition of hen egg yolk had no positive effect on the post-thaw sperm motility, viability and hatching rate when added to sucrose cryodiluents. However, addition of 5% egg yolk to the MIS containing 5% glycerol and 2.5% sucrose significantly improved the hatching rate than all other treatments. Therefore, we conclude that, MIS and 300 mmol/l sucrose are suitable diluents for immotile storage of testicular semen. For cryopreservation, dilution to a final concentration of 5-6 × 10⁶/ml in MIS with 5% glycerol, 2.5% sucrose and 5% egg yolk, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour at 10 cm above its surface, and thawed at 22 °C for 40 s is a useful cryopreservation protocol for R. temporaria sperm. Further research is needed to determine the motility parameters and cryopreservation of spermatic urine of R. temporaria.