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An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system using callus of Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin

Li, Meiru, Li, Hongqing, Hu, Xiaoying, Pan, Xiaoping, Wu, Guojiang
Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2010 v.102 no.3 pp. 321-327
genetic transformation, gene transfer, transgenes, transgenic plants, Agrobacterium radiobacter, genetic markers, callus culture, micropropagation, reporter genes, turf grasses, in vitro regeneration, culture media, callus, Zoysia tenuifolia
Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin. is one of the most popularly cultivated turfgrass. This is the first report of successful plant regeneration and genetic transformation protocols for Z. tenuifolia using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Initial calli was induced from stem nodes incubated on a Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mg l⁻¹ 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1 mg l⁻¹ 6-benzyladenine (BA), with a frequency of 53%. Compact calli were selected and subcultured monthly on the fresh medium. Sixty-nine percent of the calli could be induced to regenerate plantlets when the calli incubated on a MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l⁻¹ BA under darkness. For genetic transformation, calli were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the hpt gene as a selectable marker for hygromycin resistance and an intron-containing β-glucuronidase gene (gus-int) as a reporter gene. Following co-cultivation, about 12% of the callus explants produced hygromycin resistant calli on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg l⁻¹ 2,4-D, 1 mg l⁻¹ BA, 50 mg l⁻¹ hygromycin, 500 mg l⁻¹ cefotaxime after 8 weeks. Shoots were regenerated following transfer of the resistant calli to shoot induction medium containing 0.2 mg l⁻¹ BA, 50 mg l⁻¹ hygromycin, and 250 mg l⁻¹ cefotaxime, and about 46% of the resistant calli differentiated into shoots. Finally, all the resistant shoots were rooted on 1/2 MS media supplemented with 50 mg l⁻¹ hygromycin, 250 mg l⁻¹ cefotaxime. The transgenic nature of the transformants was demonstrated by the detection of β-glucuronidase activity in the primary transformants and by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis. About 5% of the total inoculated callus explants produced transgenic plants after approximately 5 months. The procedure described will be useful for both, the introduction of desired genes into Z. tenuifolia and the molecular analysis of gene function.