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Citrus Huanglongbing detection and semi-quantification of the carbohydrate concentration based on micro-FTIR spectroscopy

Biyun Yang, Xiaobin Li, Lianwei Wu, Yayong Chen, Fenglin Zhong, Yunshi Liu, Fei Zhao, Dapeng Ye, Haiyong Weng
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2022 v.414 no.23 pp. 6881-6897
Citrus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemometrics, greening disease, microscopy, models, phloem, prediction, starch, statistical analysis, sugars, support vector machines, trees
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is nowadays one of the most fatal citrus diseases worldwide. Once the citrus tree is infected by the HLB disease, the biochemistry of the phloem region in midribs would change. In order to investigate the carbohydrate changes in phloem region of citrus midrib, the semi-quantification models were established to predict the carbohydrate concentration in it based on Fourier transform infrared microscopy (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. Healthy, asymptomatic-HLB, symptomatic-HLB, and nutrient-deficient citrus midribs were collected in this study. The results showed that the intensity of the characteristic peak varied with the carbohydrate (starch and soluble sugar) concentration in citrus midrib, especially at the fingerprint regions of 1175–900 cm⁻¹, 1500–1175 cm⁻¹, and 1800–1500 cm⁻¹. Furthermore, semi-quantitative prediction models of starch and soluble sugar were established using the full micro-FTIR spectra and selected characteristic wavebands. The least squares support vector machine regression (LS-SVR) model combined with the random frog (RF) algorithm achieved the best prediction result with the determination coefficient of prediction ([Formula: see text]) of 0.85, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.36%, residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 2.54, and [Formula: see text] of 0.87, RMSEP of 0.37%, RPD of 2.76, for starch and soluble sugar concentration prediction, respectively. In addition, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classification models were established to identify HLB disease, achieving the overall classification accuracy of 94% and 87%, based on the full-range spectra and the optimal wavenumbers selected by the random frog (RF) algorithm, respectively. The results demonstrated that micro-FTIR spectroscopy can be a valuable tool for the prediction of carbohydrate concentration in citrus midribs and the detection of HLB disease, which would provide useful guidelines to detect citrus HLB disease.