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Effects of Heating Temperatures and Addition of Reconstituted Milk on the Heat Indicators in Milk

Lan, X.Y., Wang, J.Q., Bu, D.P., Shen, J.S., Zheng, N., Sun, P.
Journal of food science 2010 v.75 no.8 pp. C653
milk analysis, quantitative analysis, inactivation temperature, raw milk, lactulose, reconstituted milk, pasteurization, milk quality, lactoglobulins, Amadori products, peroxidase, pasteurized milk
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of heating temperatures and reconstituted milk on heat treatment indicators in milk by comparing the heat damage between raw milk and raw milk plus reconstituted milk (composite milk). The contents of lactulose, furosine, beta-lactoglobulin, and lactoperoxidase were determined after the heat indicators were heated to 65 to 115 °C for 15 s both in raw milk and composite milk. In the raw milk, the lactulose and furosine contents increased with increased heating temperature, while the beta-lactoglobulin content and lactoperoxidase activity decreased. The lactulose and furosine contents were increased after the addition of reconstituted milk. The reconstituted milk also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in the milk. Both heat treatment and an addition of reconstituted milk decreased the lactoperoxidase activity significantly (P < 0.05), and the lactoperoxidase activity was undetectable at 85 °C. The ratios of lactulose to furosine in pasteurized milk were higher than that in composite pasteurized milk. It is concluded that lactulose, furosine, and beta-lactoglobulin are suitable indicators of high heat pasteurization or raw milk, while lactoperoxidase may be used in monitoring mild heat pasteurization. Adequate heat treatment is necessary to destroy the microbes in raw milk. However, excessive heat treatment can result in inactivation of active compounds or loss of nutrients. The present study showed that the concentrations of lactulose, furosine, beta-lactoglobulin, and the activity of lactoperoxidase are sensitive to processing temperature and can serve as indicators of milk pasteurization.