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Impacts of Glutathione Maillard Reaction Products on Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability of Beef Soup
- Hong, J.H., Jung, D.W., Kim, Y.S., Lee, S.M., Kim, K.O.
- Journal of food science 2010 v.75 no.8 pp. S427
- flavor enhancers, soups, glutathione, consumer acceptance, monosodium glutamate, off flavors, glucose, Maillard reaction products, principal component analysis, flavorings, beef, flavor compounds, fructose, food additives, food acceptability
- The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,""garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and GP compared to that by increasing beef content or adding GSH or MSG. In addition, it is expected that the outcome of this study, such as sensory attributes of and consumer responses to GSH Maillard reaction products, compliments previous studies that mostly focused on chemical analysis of Maillard reaction.