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Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

Sansone-Land, Angelina, Takeoka, Gary R., Shoemaker, Charles F.
Food chemistry 2014 v.149 pp. 285-295
Olea europaea, aldehydes, esters, fermentation, gas chromatography, headspace analysis, ketones, mass spectrometry, norisoprenoids, odors, olives, phenols, pyridines, Egypt, Morocco, Spain, United States
Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: β-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives.