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Reexamination of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Sweet Potato Vine Borer Moth: Identification and Field Evaluation of a Tricosatriene

Yan, Qi, Vang, Le Van, Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc, Naka, Hideshi, Ando, Tetsu
Journal of chemical ecology 2014 v.40 no.6 pp. 590-598
Omphisa anastomosalis, bait traps, epoxides, fatty alcohols, gas chromatography, hydrocarbons, isomers, males, mass spectrometry, monitoring, moths, pests, pheromone glands, sex pheromones, sweet potatoes, synergism, vines, virgin females, Ryukyu Archipelago, Vietnam
The sweet potato vine borer moth, Omphisa anastomosalis (Pyraloidea: Crambidae), is a serious pest in tropical and subtropical Asia-Pacific regions. In previous work using a population from Okinawa, Japan, (10E,14E)-10,14-hexadecadienal (E10,E14-16:Ald) was identified as the major pheromone component, with hexadecanal, (E)-10-hexadecenal, and (E)-14-hexadecenal as minor components. However, traps baited with the synthetic compounds were less effective at attracting males in the field than those baited with virgin females. While Pyraloidea females usually produce only Type I pheromone components (unsaturated fatty alcohols and their derivatives), the pheromones of some Pyraloidea species have been shown to involve a combination of both Type I and Type II components (unsaturated hydrocarbons and their epoxides). We examined an extract of the pheromone glands of female O. anastomosalis from Vietnam by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and detected (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H) in addition to the compounds identified previously. All four isomers of 10,14–16:Ald were synthesized. A mixture of synthetic E10,E14-16:Ald and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H in a ratio of 1:0.2–1:2 was attractive to male moths in Vietnam, indicating the strong synergistic effect of the Type II compound. Addition of the other minor pheromone components to the binary blend did not increase the number of male moths captured. Combinations of Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H with the other three geometrical isomers of E10,E14-16:Ald attracted no males, further substantiating the 10E,14E configuration of the natural diene component. E10,E14-16:Ald mixed with other polyunsaturated hydrocarbons showed that mixtures that included a C₂₁ triene, a C₂₂ triene, or a C₂₃ pentaene attracted as many males as did the mixture with Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H. The identification of a highly attractive sex pheromone will help in developing efficient strategies for monitoring and control of O. anastomosalis populations in sweet potato fields.