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Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold
- Rodríguez, A., Acosta, A., Rodríguez, C.
- World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2014 v.30 no.9 pp. 2397-2406
- Botrytis cinerea, Candida, biological control agents, boscalid, carbendazim, diethofencarb, elicitors, fenhexamid, fruits, fungicide resistance, greenhouses, iprodione, petioles, phenotype, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, tomatoes, yeasts, Canary Islands, Spain
- Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8 % of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC₅₀values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC₅₀value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC₅₀value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8 % of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC₅₀values were within the range of 0.009–0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014–0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31 % reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively.