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Brassinosteroid nuclear signaling recruits HSP90 activity
- Samakovli, Despina, Margaritopoulou, Theoni, Prassinos, Constantinos, Milioni, Dimitra, Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis
- new phytologist 2014 v.203 no.3 pp. 743-757
- Arabidopsis, brassinolide, cytoplasm, gene expression, genes, heat shock proteins, image analysis, plant development, signal transduction
- Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) controls a number of developmental circuits, and serves a sophisticated and highly regulatory function in signaling pathways. Brassinosteroids (BRs) control many aspects of plant development. Genetic, physiological, cytological, gene expression, live cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches provide conclusive evidence for HSP90 involvement in Arabidopsis thalianaBR signaling. Nuclear‐localized HSP90s translocate to cytoplasm when their activity is blocked by the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA). GDA treatment promoted the export of BIN2, a regulator of BR signaling, from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, indicating that active HSP90 is required to sustain BIN2 in the nucleus. HSP90 nuclear localization was inhibited by brassinolide (BL). HSP90s interact with BIN2 in the nucleus of untreated cells and in the cytoplasm of BL‐treated cells, showing that the site‐specific action of HSP90 on BIN2 is controlled by BRs. GDA and BL treatments change the expression of a common set of previously identified BR‐responsive genes. This highlights the effect of active HSP90s on the regulation of BR‐responsive genes. Our observations reveal that HSP90s have a central role in sustaining BIN2 nuclear function. We propose that BR signaling is mediated by HSP90 activity and via trafficking of BIN2–HSP90 complexes into the cytoplasm.