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Antiproliferative, Antifungal, and Antibacterial Activities of Endophytic Alternaria Species from Cupressaceae

Soltani, Jalal, Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S.
Current microbiology 2014 v.69 no.3 pp. 349-356
Alternaria alternata, Bacillus (bacteria), Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens, Diplodia, Erwinia amylovora, Magnaporthe oryzae, Platycladus orientalis, Pseudomonas syringae, antibacterial properties, biodiversity, biogeography, endophytes, growth retardation, in vitro studies, metabolites, plant pathogenic fungi, trees
Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria’s metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.