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Hepatoprotective Effects of Solanum nigrum Linn Fruits Against Cadmium Chloride Toxicity in Albino Rats

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A., Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E., Ali, Rhaam F., Mahmoud, Hend A.
Biological trace element research 2014 v.160 no.3 pp. 400-408
Solanum nigrum, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, albino, albumins, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, blood proteins, cadmium, catalase, diet, dried fruit, erythrocytes, feed conversion, fruits, glucose, hepatoprotective effect, ingestion, lethal dose 50, leukocyte count, leukocytes, lipid peroxidation, liver, rats, superoxide dismutase, weight gain
The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD₅₀ of cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl₂ toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl₂-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl₂ induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl₂-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl₂ ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl₂ ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl₂-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl₂ which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby.