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Risk modulation of GSTM1–GSTT1 interactions to head and neck cancer in tobacco users
- Senthilkumar, K. P., Thirumurugan, R.
- Molecular biology reports 2014 v.41 no.9 pp. 5635-5644
- air pollution, biomarkers, blood, chronic exposure, genetic polymorphism, genotype, glutathione transferase, head, mastication, metabolism, neck, odds ratio, patients, regression analysis, risk, smokeless tobacco, India
- Tobacco use and environmental air pollution are the established etiological factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) progression. Nevertheless, not all the inhabitants with high usage of tobacco from the same polluted locality are suffering with HNC and this is due to the existence of factors like inter-individual genetic polymorphisms, life time exposure to tobacco and the rate of xenobiotic metabolism enzyme (XME) activity. The present study investigates the polymorphic genotypes of the most important XME, glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 (GST M1) and Theta 1 (GST T1) as the risk modulator to HNC among tobacco-habituated inhabitants of Saurashtra in Gujarat, a region in western India. A population based case–control study was done in 252 HNC patients and 504 healthy controls. Blood samples were collected from the subjects and investigated for polymorphic genotypes of GST M1 and GST T1. Estimation of the odds of risks was done by logistic regressions. Among the subjects with high usage of tobacco, M1 not null-T1 null genotypes presence was found as risk reducing factor to HNC with 0.334 folds (95 % CI; 0.170–0.659). The presence of M1 null-T1 not null genotypes was found with susceptibility to HNC among the subjects with no habit of tobacco chewing, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.170 (1.128–8.913) and no habit of smoking, AOR of 2.544 (1.094–5.963). The present study reveals the finding of significantly increased risk to HNC by interactions of GST M1 null-GST T1 not null polymorphic genotypes among the subjects with nil or less tobacco usage shed some light for the insights of biomarker application in early detection of HNC.