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Bacterial artificial chromosome-derived molecular markers for early bolting in sugar beet

Gaafar, R. M., Hohmann, U., Jung, C.
Theoretical and applied genetics 2005 v.110 no.6 pp. 1027-1037
Beta vulgaris, alleles, bacterial artificial chromosomes, bolting, dominant genes, gel electrophoresis, genetic markers, haplotypes, linkage disequilibrium, loci, molecular cloning, mutation, nucleotides, open reading frames, polymerase chain reaction, sugar beet
Early bolting in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is controlled by the dominant gene B. From an incomplete physical map around the B gene, 18 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were selected for marker development. Three BACs were shotgun-sequenced, and 61 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Together with 104 BAC ends from 54 BACs, a total number of 55,464 nucleotides were sequenced. Of these, 37 BAC ends and 12 ORFs were selected for marker development. Thirty-one percent of the sequences were found to be single copy and 24%, low copy. From these sequences, 15 markers from ten different BACs were developed. Ten polymorphisms were determined by simple agarose gel electrophoresis of either restricted or non-restricted PCR products. Another five markers were determined by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. In order to select candidate BACs for cloning the gene, genetic linkage between seven markers and the bolting gene was calculated using 1,617 plants from an F₂ population segregating for early bolting. The recombination values ranged between 0.0033 and 0.0201. In addition, a set of 41 wild and cultivated Beta accessions differing in their early bolting character was genotyped with seven markers. A common haplotype encompassing two marker loci and the b allele was found in all sugar beet varieties, indicating complete linkage disequilibrium between these loci. This suggests that the bolting gene is located in close vicinity to these markers, and the corresponding BACs can be used for cloning the gene.