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Genetic analysis of adaptive syndromes interrelated with seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa)
- Gu, Xing-You, Kianian, Shahryar F., Hareland, Gary A., Hoffer, Barry L., Foley, Michael E.
- Theoretical and applied genetics 2005 v.110 no.6 pp. 1108-1118
- Oryza sativa, alleles, breeding, color, cultivars, genetic techniques and protocols, heritability, hulls, loci, pericarp, quantitative trait loci, rice, seed dormancy, sprouting
- Seed dormancy in rice interrelates to the weedy characteristics shattering, awn, black hull color, and red pericarp color. A cross between the weedy strain SS18-2 and the breeding line EM93-1 was developed to investigate the genetic basis and adaptive significance of these interrelationships. These characteristics or their components differed in average degree of dominance from −0.8 to 1.5, in heritability from 0.5 to 0.96, and in their contribution to phenotypic or genotypic variation in dormancy by up to 25%. Five dormancy, four shattering, and three awn-length quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in the BC₁ population replicated in 2 years. Two QTLs for hull color were identified, and the SS18-2-derived and EM93-1-derived alleles increased the intensity of black, and red or yellow pigmentations, respectively. The only QTL for pericarp color co-located with the red pericarp gene Rc, with the SS18-2-derived allele increasing the intensity of black and red pigmentations. Four of the five dormancy QTLs were flanked or bracketed by one to four QTLs for the interrelated characteristics. The QTL organization pattern indicates the central role of seed dormancy in adaptive syndromes for non-domesticated plants, implies that the elimination of dormancy from cultivars could arise from the selections against multiple interrelated characteristics, and challenges the use of dormancy genes at these loci in breeding varieties for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). However, another QTL (qSD12) provides candidate gene(s) for PHS resistance because it has a large effect in the population and it is independent of the loci for interrelated characteristics.