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Seasonal cycles in stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) from the temperate zone: Diversity and control

A. Kh. Saulich, D. L. Musolin
Entomological revue 2014 v.94 no.6 pp. 785-814
Apateticus, Arma custos, Nezara antennata, Nezara viridula, Palomena angulosa, Perillus bioculatus, Picromerus bidens, Podisus maculiventris, breeding, color, diapause, estivation, hibernation, imagos, insect eggs, insects, multivoltine habit, phylogeny, prediction, seasonal development, seasonal variation, subtropics, summer, temperate zones, univoltine habit, winter
The paper reviews the diversity of seasonal cycles known in stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) from the temperate zone and is based on the data of 43 pentatomid species studied in detail up to date (Saulich and Musolin, 2011). All the seasonal cycles realized by pentatomids in the temperate zone can be divided into two large groups: univoltine and multivoltine cycles. In univoltine cycles, only one generation is annually realized. However, univoltinism of a particular species or population can be ensured by different mechanisms: its control can be endogenous (involving an obligate diapause) or exogenous (environmental, involving a facultative diapause). Furthermore, endogenously controlled univoltine seasonal cycles can include obligate embryonic (egg) diapause (e.g., Picromerus bidens and Apateticus cynicus), obligate nymphal diapause (e.g., Pentatoma rufipes) or obligate adult (reproductive) diapause (e.g., Palomena prasina, Palomena angulosa, and Menida scotti). Exogenously controlled seasonal cycles are more flexible. Many species that are multivoltine in the subtropical or warm temperate zones are univoltine further polewards. In this case, their univoltinism is controlled exogenously, or environmentally. The mechanism often involves such seasonal adaptations as photoperiodic response of facultative winter diapause induction with a high thermal optimum (e.g., Arma custos and Dybowskyia reticulata) or a high critical threshold of winter diapause induction response (e.g., Graphosoma lineatum). The seasonal cycles of some species include not only winter diapause (hibernation) but also summer diapause (aestivation). The diapausing stage can be the same (e.g., Nezara antennata has facultative adult winter and summer diapauses) or different (e.g., Picromerus bidens survives winter in obligate embryonic diapause and spends the hottest period of summer in facultative adult aestivation). All the multivoltine cycles follow the same general pattern, with one, two, or even more directly breeding generation(s) followed by a generation that enters winter diapause. However, this sequence may be complicated by incorporation of specific seasonal adaptations such as aestivation, migrations, different forms of seasonal polyphenism or polymorphism (e.g., seasonal changes of body color), etc. Many stink bugs demonstrate geographic clines of voltinism, producing several generations in the subtropical regions (environmentally controlled multivoltine development) and two or only one generation(s) polewards (environmentally controlled bi- or univoltinism). However, some species demonstrate a strictly bivoltine seasonal cycle: they always produce two annual generations, each with either winter or summer diapause. An example is Nezara antennata which produces two generations and enters facultative winter and summer diapauses. Semivoltine seasonal cycles last more than one year. They are not very rare among insects and are known in true bugs, but have not yet been recorded among pentatomids. Examples of different seasonal cycles are described and discussed in detail. Further discussion is focused on the ecological importance of photoperiodic and thermal responses in cases of natural or artificial dispersal of pentatomids beyond their original ranges. The phytophagous Nezara viridula and the predatory Podisus maculiventris and Perillus bioculatus are used as examples. An attempt is made to compare the phylogeny of Pentatomidae and distribution of realized patterns of their seasonal development. However, it is concluded that reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships cannot yet provide a sufficient basis for prediction of realized seasonal cycles. It is suggested that the terms uni-, bi-, multi-, and semivoltinism should refer to populations rather than species, since the realized patterns of seasonal development often differ between the northern and southern populations of the same broadly distributed species.