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Early PCR-based detection of Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides and F. poae on stem bases of winter wheat throughout Poland

A. Kuzdraliński, H. Szczerba, K. Tofil, A. Filipiak, E. Garbarczyk, P. Dziadko, M. Muszyńska, E. Solarska
European journal of plant pathology 2014 v.140 no.3 pp. 491-502
Fusarium culmorum, autumn, corn, crops, crown rot, economic impact, fungi, herbicides, nitrogen fertilizers, polymerase chain reaction, spring, surveys, winter wheat, Poland
Foot rot and crown rot are fungal diseases of wheat caused by a complex of Fusarium species. They have a huge economic impact mainly due to yield reduction. A survey was conducted to identify four Fusarium species, occurring on wheat stem bases, using species-specific PCR assays in samples collected during spring of 2012. The dominant species was F. graminearum, which was identified in above 64 % of samples. F. culmorum was detected in 15.71 %, F. poae in 15.71 % and F. sporotrichioides in 5.71 % wheat fields. Most of the wheat fields in the eastern Poland were infected with at least one or two of Fusarium species, while in central Poland no Fusarium species were identified in most of the fields. The presence of F. graminearum tends to favor the presence of F. culmorum and this effect was visible also for F. poae and F. sporotrichioides. The frequency of F. graminearum and F. culmorum detections were highest where wheat crops were preceded by maize and in the samples from late sown fields. The opposite observation was made for F. poae and F. sporotrichioides, where the number of detections of these species was higher in samples from early sown fields. The number of detected Fusarium species was significantly lower in samples collected from fields protected with autumn herbicide in comparison to unprotected fields. The rate of autumn N fertilization did not affect the number of Fusarium detections.