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Molecular screening for avirulence alleles AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 in airborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants from Poland and the UK

Kaczmarek, Joanna, Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O., Irzykowski, Witold, Cools, Hans J., Stonard, Jenna F., Brachaczek, Andrzej, Jedryczka, Malgorzata
Journal of applied genetics 2014 v.55 no.4 pp. 529-539
Brassica napus var. napus, DNA, Leptosphaeria maculans, aboveground biomass, alleles, autumn, bioassays, cultivars, field experimentation, inoculum, leaves, light microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rapeseed, screening, spore traps, spores, stem cankers, surveys, Poland, United Kingdom
A combination of staining, light microscopy and SYBR green- and dual-labelled fluorescent probe-based qPCR chemistries with species- and gene-specific primers was employed to evaluate fluctuations in the aerial biomass of Leptosphaeria maculans spores captured by volumetric spore trappings in Poznan, Poland (2006, 2008) and Harpenden, UK (2002, 2006). Arising from these surveys, DNA samples extracted from Burkard spore-trap tapes were screened for fluctuation patterns in the frequencies of AvrLm1 and AvrLm6, the most prominent of the 15 genes that code for avirulence effectors in this Dothideomycete cause of the destructive phoma stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. In Poznan, very low frequencies of AvrLm1 allele were found in the autumn of both 2006 and 2008, reflecting significantly increased cultivation of rape seed with Rlm1-based resistance. In contrast, at least six folds-higher frequencies of AvrLm6, which were also confirmed by end-point PCR bioassays on phoma-infected leaves from the same region of Poland, were obtained during both years. In the UK, however, relatively higher AvrLm1 allele titres were found in L. maculans spores captured in air samples from the autumn of 2002 on the experimental fields of Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, that were historically sown to genetically heterogeneous B. napus cultivars. In the 2006 screen these levels had plummeted, to a 1:4 ratio, in favour of frequencies of the AvrLm6 allele. Patterns of fluctuations in erg11 (CYP51) fragments coding for sterol 14α-demethylase suggest October as the month with the most viable wind-dispersed L. maculans propagules of each season of the screens.