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Effect of Sodium Chloride, Acetic Acid, and Enzymes on Carotene Extraction in Carrots (Daucus carota L.)

Jaramillo‐Flores, Maria E., Lugo‐Martínez, Jose J., Ramírez‐Sanjuan, Eduardo, Montellano‐Rosales, H., Dorantes‐Alvarez, Lidia, Hernández‐Sánchez, Humberto
Journal of food science 2005 v.70 no.2 pp. S136
Daucus carota, acetic acid, beta-carotene, carrots, hydrolysis, pickling, proteinases, sodium chloride
Carrot root cores were cut off longitudinally and treated with NaCl (0.6 and 1.2 M) and/or acetic acid (1.33%, 2.67%, and 4%) solutions. The extractability of the carotenes was estimated. Similarly, carrot cores were also treated with some degrading enzymes (carbohydrases, lipases, and proteases) alone or in combination to study the effect of the tissue rupture or the hydrolysis of possible complexes or interactions between carotenes and other components on the carotene extractability. The results showed that acetic acid increased the extractability of α‐ and β carotenes up to 99.8% and 94.6%, respectively, at a 4% acid concentration compared with the samples without any treatment. This increase was directly proportional to the acid concentration. An increase in extractability was also observed for NaCl, although the increases were not as high as in the previous case with values of 49% and 41.4% for α‐ and β‐carotenes respectively at a 0.6 M concentration. The study of microstructural changes and extractability revealed that the enzymatic treatments could have broken some carotene complexes and interactions and altered the carbohydrate matrix structure, increasing to a certain extent the extractability of carotenes. It can be concluded then that pickling with 4% acetic acid is a good method to increase the extractability of α‐ and β‐carotenes.