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A Novel Process for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace
- Kammerer, Dietmar, Claus, Achim, Schieber, Andreas, Carle, Reinhold
- Journal of food science 2005 v.70 no.2 pp. C157
- Vitis vinifera, cell walls, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, enzymatic treatment, enzyme activity, enzymes, food processing, glycosides, grape pomace, grapes, malvidin, pectins, polyphenols, quercetin, viscosity
- A novel process for enzyme‐assisted extraction of polyphenols from winery by‐products was established on a pilot‐plant scale. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of grape skins, that is, selection of pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, enzyme‐substrate ratio, and time‐temperature regime of enzymatic treatment, was conducted on a laboratory scale. Enzyme activities were monitored by viscosity measurement of resuspended grape pomace and by quantification of oligomeric pectin and cellulose degradation products released from cell wall material. Optimal conditions were obtained with 5000 ppm (based on dry matter) of a pectinolytic and 2500 ppm of a cellulolytic enzyme preparation, respectively, at 50°C, which were also applied in pilot‐plant scale experiments. Concomitant determination of individual polyphenolics demonstrated a significantly improved yield for most compounds when compared with experiments without enzyme addition. Recovery rates were comparable to those obtained when grape pomace was extracted using sulfite. Pre‐extraction of the pomace with hot water followed by treatment with cell wall degrading enzymes even increased yields of phenolic compounds. Only some quercetin glycosides and malvidin coumaroylglucoside were partly hydrolyzed due to enzyme side activities. This new process may provide a valuable alternative to the application of sulfite, which is considered crucial in food processing.