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Potential environmental effects of pack stock on meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, USA
- Ostoja, Steven M., Brooks, Matthew L., Moore, Peggy E., Berlow, Eric L., Blank, Robert, Roche, Jim, Chase, Jen, Haultain, Sylvia
- The Rangeland journal 2014 v.36 no.5 pp. 411-427
- asses, biogeochemical cycles, defecation, ecosystems, horses, hydrology, indigenous species, invasive species, land management, meadows, monitoring, mules, pathogens, soil, soil chemistry, soil compaction, soil erosion, species diversity, streams, temperature, trampling damage, urination, wildlife, wildlife habitats, woody plants, Sierra Nevada (California), United States
- Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment. The potential environmental effects of pack stock on Sierra Nevada meadow ecosystems are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of pack stock has the potential to influence the following: (1) water nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, temperature, and microbial pathogen content; (2) soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, soil compaction and hydrology; (3) plant individuals, populations and community dynamics, non-native invasive species, and encroachment of woody species; and (4) wildlife individuals, populations and communities. It is considered from currently available information that management objectives of pack stock should include the following: minimise bare ground, maximise plant cover, maintain species composition of native plants, minimise trampling, especially on wet soils and stream banks, and minimise direct urination and defecation by pack stock into water. However, incomplete documentation of patterns of pack stock use and limited past research limits current understanding of the effects of pack stock, especially their effects on water, soils and wildlife. To improve management of pack stock in this region, research is needed on linking measurable monitoring variables (e.g. plant cover) with environmental relevancy (e.g. soil erosion processes, wildlife habitat use), and identifying specific environmental thresholds of degradation along gradients of pack stock use in Sierra Nevada meadows.