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The phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial function of a tyrosinase from scallop Chlamys farreri

Zhou, Zhi, Ni, Duojiao, Wang, Mengqiang, Wang, Lingling, Wang, Leilei, Shi, Xiaowei, Yue, Feng, Liu, Rui, Song, Linsheng
Fish & shellfish immunology 2012 v.33 no.2 pp. 375-381
Chlamys, Escherichia coli, L-dopa, antibacterial properties, complementary DNA, copper, dopamine, glycoproteins, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, hydroxylation, immune response, kidneys, messenger RNA, monophenol monooxygenase, muscles, oxidation, pathogens, phenols, polypeptides, quinones, recombinant proteins, scallops, tissues
Tyrosinase (TYR), also known as monophenol monooxygenase, is a ubiquitous binuclear copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of phenols to catechols and the oxidation of catechols to quinones. In the present study, the cDNA of a tyrosinase (CfTYR) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, which encoded a polypeptide of 486 amino acids. The CfTYR mRNA transcripts were expressed in all the tested tissues, including haemocytes, adductor muscle, kidney, hepatopancreas, gill, gonad and mantle, with the highest level in mantle. The expression level of CfTYR mRNA in haemocytes decreased significantly during 3–6 h after LPS stimulation, and reached the lowest level at 6 h (0.05-fold, P < 0.05). Then, it began to increase at 12 h (0.32-fold, P > 0.05), and reached the highest level at 24 h (2.91-fold, P < 0.05). At 3 h after LPS stimulation, the phenoloxidase activity catalyzing L-dopa and dopamine in haemolymph increased significantly to 53.13 and 40.36 U mg⁻¹ respectively, but it decreased to 10.82 U mg⁻¹ and even undetectable level after CfTYR activity was inhibited. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of haemolymph against Escherichia coli was also increased significantly at 3 h after LPS stimulation, but it decreased significantly when the haemolymph was treated by TYR inhibitor. The recombinant protein of the mature CfTYR peptide expressed in the in vitro Glycoprotein Expression Kit displayed phenoloxidase activity of 64.36 ± 5.51 U mg⁻¹ in the present of trypsinase and Cu²⁺. These results collectively suggested that CfTYR was a homologue of tyrosinase in scallop C. farreri with the copper-dependence phenoloxidase activity, and it could be induced after immune stimulation and mediate immune response for the elimination of invasive pathogens in scallop.