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Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila

Kumar, Saurav, Raman, R.P., Pandey, P.K., Mohanty, Snatashree, Kumar, Abhay, Kumar, Kundan
Fish & shellfish immunology 2013 v.34 no.2 pp. 564-573
Aeromonas hydrophila, Carassius auratus, alanine transaminase, aquaculture, aspartate transaminase, azadirachtin, bacteria, blood glucose, blood serum, disease control, erythrocyte count, goldfish, hematocrit, hemoglobin, immune response, immunoglobulins, immunostimulants, leukocyte count, leukocytes, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, oral administration, phagocytosis
Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T0 (without azadirachtin), T1 (0.1%), T2 (0.2%), T3 (0.4%), T4 (0.8%) and T5 (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced TEC, TLC, Total Ig, total protein, NBT activity, serum lysozyme activity and myeloperoxidase level in different treatment groups in comparison with control group. Similarly, SGOT, SGPT and blood glucose level were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) high but PCV and Hb did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg−1 showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative percentage survival (42.60%) when compared with the control against A. hydrophila infection. This study indicated that azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg−1) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture.